Thesis (Sam): From 600 C.E.-1450 C.E. the Muslim society influenced European and sub-Saharan African cultures socially, religiously, and economically through their early era of exploration and conquering. In Europe, many religious conflicts came about as well as social disorder, and in Africa trade and religion were exchanged and adopted over time.

Thesis (Whitney): The Islamic world and Europe influenced each other between 600 C.E. to 1450 C.E. in ways such as trade introducing new crops, borrowing philosophical thought, and religious teachings and confrontations.

In the begining of this time period, the only contact between Europeans and Muslims was through trade and Greek philisophical, scientific, and medical writings. Throughout the seventh and eigth centuries, Arabs influenced sub-Saharan Africa politically, socially, and religiously. Because of political organization in states such as Ghana, Islam was easily adopted. Not only did Islam fulfill their religious needs, but also provided economic advantages through trade access in India, Persia, and southwest Asia. Despite their conversion to Islam, most still practiced old traditions and religions. Beacause of Muslim invasions during the reconquista_ , religious conflicts intensified rivalries between Christian and Muslim states in the Iberian Penisula. The Christian victory of this reconquest lead to campaigns against Muslims also known as the Crusades_ . Pope Urban II_ launched the first crusade in 1095. He promised salvation to those who lost thier lives during these crusades. With no plans, weapons, ideas, or supplies, men and women set out to claim land from Muslims in Palestine, which resulted in disaster. These European crusades lead Muslims, Turks and Egyptians to put aside thier differences and fight against Christians. In 1187, they sealed the fate of the Christians in East Mediterranean.
  • Merchants moved throughout dar-al-Islam, introduced useful crops to new regions: Spain, Mediterranean, islands of Cyprus, Crete, Sicily, and Sardinia
  • Increased agricultural production contributed to the rapid growh of cities in all parts of the Islamic world from India to Spain
  • Paper manufacture
  • Ibn Rushd (1126-1198)- helped shape Islamic philosophy
  • Arab conquerors established Islamic faith in north Africa and sub-saharan Africa during the 7th-8th centuries
  • Islam=affront to Christianity (according to popes and clergys of Roman Catholic churches)
  • Authority of Iberian penisula fell to Christians
  • Organized conversion conventions
  • Appealed to Muslims by explaining Christianity in terms of scholastic theology and arguments by Aristotle (Muslims thought highly of him)
  • Crusades began when Christians believed remaining Muslims needed to be "taken care of"
  • Pope Urban II-promised salvation, response to his speeches were enthusiastic, victories were quick
  • Because of crusades, Christians (Europeans) became accustomed with Muslim ideas and inventions- science and astronomy, work of Aristotle, "Arabic" numerals (first founded in India), paper making techniques (first founded in China)
  • Muslims began to explore northern Africa in the early 7th and 8th centuries
  • Soon crossed the Sahara desert into the Ghana empire
  • Camel introduced as mode of transportation throughout Sahara and horses and donkeys no longer used
  • Koumbi-Saleh, capital city of Ghana empire, largest trade region and supported the arrival of qadi and Muslim scholars
  • By the 10th century most kings adopted Islam and built mosques and Islamic schools throughout the empire
  • Many citizens and merchants adopted Islam as well, but kept traditional religions and beliefs (mixed Islam)
  • Islam defined differences between sexes and their roles in society while also supplementing traditional values

validated by saira: good info and links!!!! there is more info on the begenning and middle of htis era though...the maps are cool too!!! :]
Validated by erick:good use of links i like the maps the second thesis is better its lets wordy o_0 <-----(me reading the first thesis)
Validated by kim and sara: good info in the links and here. I like the second thesis..There are a few spelling errors but it's not THAT important! Like what saira said, there is more info to this subject but what you guys have here is good too. You guys have nice maps too.:)