(Ottoman Empire), 1750-1914

Political: Janissaries, Tsar, Revolution of 1905, Constitutional government in 1908, late 18th century governers started taking taxes for themselves, land and freedom party, capitulations, and French syle laws

Economic: Ottoman artisans and craft workers frequently led urban riots to protest against imports, trade of opium, cotton, indigo, and grain, economic decline due to limited resources and trade switched to mari-time trade, became dependent on European loans

Religious: education for Muslims continued by the Ulama

Social: corruption of Janissaries, reform and repression of the Young Ottomans, Young Turks wanted to change social order

Intellectual: Tanzimat reformers drew considerable inspiration from enlightenment thought and constitutional foundation of European states, construction of new schools and mosques

(Technology): westernized, fell before westernized

Near Geographic: loss of Egypt, Greece, Serbia, Balkan provinces- French tour over Egypt, Muhammad, industrialized