(Ottoman Empire), 1750-1914


  • military decline since seventeenth century
  • janissaries became corrupt
  • loss of territory ( Muhammad Ali in Egypt for example)
  • tanzimat reform (Young Ottomans wanted more reform)
  • pattern of governmental overthrow ( Mahmud II and Young Turks)


  • economic difficulty since seventeenth century
  • inability to collect taxes- governors became independent
  • less trade; exported raw materials;led to European dependence; which led to capitulations
  • reform attempts were unsuccessful


  • Islam
  • over time government became increasingly secularized


  • several attempted reforms; educational, legal, and infrastructure
  • adopted European traditions


  • modernized educational system (no more mosque schools)
  • Eurpean science and technology


  • Euorpean science and technology (Ottomans were behind in technology; always used second hand Euopean technology)

Near Geographic:

  • Middle East
  • loss of territory