Group Member Names:

Type your responses below the question. Bold the notecard terms.

How did human/environmental interaction help and/or hurt the societies of chapter ##?

In what ways did cultural interactions develop in/get introduced to the societies of chapter ##?

The general theme of this chapter is the cross-cultural interaction that takes place throughout the civilizations of the world between 1100 and 1500 CE. While some, like Ibn Battuta, a Muslim qadi (a religious judge/ interpreter of the law) and documented traveler, observed the lifestyles of those in regions of North Africa and Asia, others, like Venetian Marco Polo, were recording the lives of those in China's Royal Court during the reign of the Great Khan. In terms of religious interaction, Christianity was the dominant religion by far. As missionaries such as John of Montecorvino were giving Christianity a name in the provinces of China by building churches and translating the Bible's text, those in higher positions, such as Fernando of Aragon and Isabel of Castile, were recapturing Granada from the Muslims during the Reconquista. On another level of interaction, different forms of art and technology were transferred between cultures, allowing them to grow. For instance, during the Renaissance came the time for cultures to borrow from Classical Greek and Roman style in regards to sculpture, architecture, and painting. These borrowed cultural traits helped to broaden the artistic and intellectual horizons of Postclassical Europe. Further east, Ming authorities sent voyager Zheng He on numerous missions throughout the Indian Ocean, visiting ports and publicizing China's immense power and wealth. Although Zheng He's voyages were eventually ended by the Ming Emperor due to a loss of interest in foreign affairs, they are a testament to the wide-scale sea travel that took place more frequently in this period. Sailing and sea exploration played an extremely large role in the interaction of the world's cultures during the Postclassical Era. For instance, advancements in sailing allowed explorers like Vasco da Gama to travel around the Cape of Good Hope to India, and enabled adventurer Christopher Columbus to find a way across the Atlantic, regardless of how accurate he was in his prediction of finally reaching India. Overall, the interaction of cultures during this chapter were based primarily on sea-based travel and trade, particularly in the Indian Ocean Basin.

(most of the terms are actually people, I know)

Within the context of chapter ##, what changes or developments occurred as related to state-building?

In what ways (positive and/or negative) did the societies of chapter ## economically develop?

How did the societies of chapter ## develop and/or transform in the context of this unit?