Group Member Names: Melinda Lam, Brittney Fidler, Nicole Gaian, and Whitney Collinsworth

Type your responses below the question. Bold the notecard terms.

How did human/environmental interaction help and/or hurt the societies of chapter ##?

In what ways did cultural interactions develop in/get introduced to the societies of chapter ##?

Within the context of chapter 20, what changes or developments occurred as related to state-building?

German princes formed the Holy Roman Empire, which they viewed as a Christian revival of the earlier Roman Empire. Counts, dukes and other local authorities took responsibility for providing order in their own regions. Otto of Saxony was particularly aggressive. By mid-10th century he established himself King in northern Germany. Pope John XII proclaimed Otto emperor in 962 C.E. The investiture contest was a controversy over the appointment of church officials in the late 11th and 12th century. Pope Gregory VII ordered an end to the practice of investiture in an effort to regain control of the clergy and ensure that church officials met the spiritual criteria. Emperor Henry IV was excommunicated because of his disobedience to Pope Gregory’s policy. Fredrick Bar Barossa sought to absorb Lombardy in northern Italy. The Papal coalition forced Bar Barossa to relinquish his rights in Lombardy. In France and England princes’ established regional monarchs on the basis of relationships lords and their retainers. The captain of France, Hugh Capet, founded this dynasty from 987. It lasted three centuries. Capet was a puppet king. The lords around him were more powerful then the king. The Normans were decedents of Vikings in Normandy, France. Duke William of Normandy invaded England in 1066. They introduced the Norman style of political administration to England. In the Regional States in Italy and Iberia, Popes ruled a good-sized territory in central Italy, and brought Roman Catholic Christianity. The Hanseatic league was an association of trading cities. The Hansa dominated trade of Northern Europe. -Whitney Collinsworth

In what ways (positive and/or negative) did the societies of chapter ## economically develop?

How did the societies of chapter 20 develop and/or transform in the context of this unit?

Society in the Middle Ages was split up in three estates (classes), those who pray, those who fight, and those who work. Those who prayed were the clergy of the Roman Catholic church, those who fight came from ranks of nobles, and lastly, the ones who work cultivated land which reflected a society marked by great inequality. Outside of the classes, people had different opportunities. For example, aristocratic women found a liking to the chivalry (code of ethics) and started to spread its values. Women who lived in the courtyside continued to do similar tasks except in medival towns. Most guilds would admit women into ranks. Guilds became a place that brought people together with communication and interactions. All these opportunities made women enjoy living in their society. For a period of time, a controversy emerged between church officials known as the Investiture Contest. Later on, Pope Gregory VII declared a stop to lay investiture. However, Henry IV challenged Gregory's policy and ended up excommunicated. Apart from the churches, there were cathedral schools which developed in the high middle ages and provided a decent education for people. Later on, the teachers and students who organized guilds helped transform the cathedral schools into universities. This really changed the society by making it more developed. Overall, the society both developed and transformed with the various improvements and constrution of different parts of the community forming one great, successful, society. -Melinda Lam