Group Member Names: Amy Gilson, Emily McLaughlin

Type your responses below the question. Bold the notecard terms.

How did human/environmental interaction help and/or hurt the societies of chapter ##?

In what ways did cultural interactions develop in/get introduced to the societies of chapter ##?

Within the context of chapter ##, what changes or developments occurred as related to state-building?

Bantu peoples developed increasingly complex forms of government, yet they did not depend on an elaborate hierarchy. Instead they governed themselves through family and kinship groups. African society also made a place for age groups. These kin-based societies were also known as statelss societies. Each tribe was generally around 100 people and the chiefs of these tribes would come together to make decisions when it affected more than one tribe. Local chiefs strengthened their authority and increased their communities influences by controlling and taxing trade. African society began to flourish because of the Mali empire, built by Sundiata, and their control on trans-Saharan trade. When Mansa Musa came into power, Sundiata's grandnephew, Islam was introduced and greatly spread. With trans-Saharan trade and Muslim ideas and practices slave-trading became quite prominent. In the 10th century there was a 14-year revolt, the Zanj Revolt, and it clearly demonstrated slavery as a significant feature of Muslim society.
Trans-Saharan trade as well as the spread of Islam changed society for African peoples greatly by bringing new ideas and new techniques for building a great state.

In what ways (positive and/or negative) did the societies of chapter ## economically develop?

How did the societies of chapter ## develop and/or transform in the context of this unit?

Sub-Saharan African societies were based on a stateless society system, and social positions were determined by gender and age, or commonly known as age groups and kinship groups. Basically, tribes and villages were goverened by the male heads of each family, and the clans were made up of extended family and close friends. Diviners were of high regard in the tribes. They were considered mediaries between the physical and spiritual world. They were groups of highly intelligent men and women who the tribe consulted with all their problems. The trans-Saharan trade was widely known for their slaves, for example the ruler Mansa Musa of Mali took 500 slaves with him on his pilgrimage to Mecca, giving them out as gifts. These slaves were known as the Zanj, black slaves from the Swahili coast.