Group Member Names:Kelly Christerson, Armando Covarroubias, Chris Borrero, and Sam Waldman

Type your responses below the question. Bold the note card terms.

How did human/environmental interaction help and/or hurt the societies of chapter ##?

During this time, people and the environmental interaction helped the societies of chapter 14 because they were spreading the religion of Islam all across the land. Although that was the main reason for moving from one place to the next, trade was the next most important reason. Camel caravans traveled all across dar-Islam and ships did maritime trade. In order to have trading cities they requiered agricultural techniques so that they could grow their food where they were instead of hunting and gathering which would mean that they would not be able to settle down in any areas, prohibiting them from creating cities.

In what ways did cultural interactions develop in/get introduced to the societies of chapter ##?

Within the context of chapter ##, what changes or developments occurred as related to state-building?

In what ways (positive and/or negative) did the societies of chapter ## economically develop?

In the Islamic society of these times, soldiers, administrators and merchants traveled and encountered new things. Some of these new things consisted of new crops, animals and agricultural techniques. Sugarcane, rice, vegetables, fruit and industrial crops were of some of the new agricultural plants. These items led to enriched and varied diets for better health for people. They also alllowed the growing season to extend throughout the whole year. Cultivators refined growing techniques and produced a better agricultural economy. Muslim people have always resided in a prosperous trading society. The establishment of importance in Asian trade cities and bringing back of the silk roads were major trade factors of this time by the Muslims. Camels were used for travel across Asia and soon caravanserais were established in major cities. Nautical technology from China; the compass, India; the lateen sail and the Mediterranean; the astrolobe increased maritime trade. Banks also helped stimulate trade as centers for money and cash carrying stations. They provided and extensive range of services and influenced trade greatly during these times. Women in Mulim society were, for the most part, treated with equal respect and rights stated in the Quran. Soon this way of life would change though and women were ot be veiled. This lifestyle was enforced by the Sharia and mainly pursued only by upper class urban women.

How did the societies of chapter ## develop and/or transform in the context of this unit?

Religiously the societies formed in great numbers. Five pillars of Islam formed a moral code, that all the people lived by on a daily basis. Islamic law known as the sharia, came about centuries after Muhammad and offered detailed guidance and promoted responsible and proper behavior, which all in all bettered the community. Pillars of Islam included;Muslims must acknowledge Allah as the only god,Must pray to Allah daily, facing Mecca,Must observe a fast during daylight savings time in the month of Ramadan,Must contribute alms for weak and poor,Those who are able, take the hajj and make a pilgrimage to Mecca. This severely transformed the diverse societies of Islam.