Group Member Names:

Tim Slaughter, Skyler Dreher, Carter Phillips, JJ Paetow
Type your responses below the question. Bold the notecard terms.

How did human/environmental interaction help and/or hurt the societies of chapter ##?

In what ways did cultural interactions develop in/get introduced to the societies of chapter ##?

In early Constantinople, one of the newest emperors, Justinian, began Christianity by constructing the Hagia Sophia, which was famous for the Christian archeitecture. Saints Cyril and Methodius were missionairies that were sent to Balken lands. While there they devised th cyrillic alphabet to help illeterate Slavic prople.
Caesaropapist emperors participated actively in religous and theological matters. Constantinople organized the council of Nicea which brought together bishops, spokesmen, and leaders from all the Christian churches. Iconoclasm was the most decisive ecclesiastical policy implemented by Byzantium emperors and was inagurated by Emperor Leo lll. Byzantium had a long traditon of producing religous icons, such as Jesus. Greeh philosophy in Christian theology was prominent in Greek-speaking Byzantium. Byzantium monasticism individuals observed regimes of extreme asceticism and self-denial. St. Basil of caesarea urged constantinople to adopt reforms to enchance effectiveness to the church. Later, fighting erupted between the east and west Byzantium led to a great schism between eastern and western churches.

Within the context of chapter ##, what changes or developments occurred as related to state-building?

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the eastern section continued under the new title of the Byzantine Empire. The first emperor, Constantine, ruled in a caesaropapistic fashion, heading the empire and participatng in ecclesiastical affairs. One of the next emperors, Justinian, systemized the laws and codified them. This system was composed in a book, Corpus iuris civilus, and won recognition as Justinian's Code. After one of the many Islamic seiges, the emperor changed the economic organization into the theme system which strengthened the free peasant class and the military. Also, trade organization, such as banks and joint businesses, increased the wealth of those in the city. Although there were no internal revolts except for the disruption caused by iconoclasm, Islamic forces attempted to take over Constantinople on many occasions. However, after Constantinople was greatly weakened by the Fourth Crusade, the Ottoman Turks seized power from the Byzantine emperor.

In what ways (positive and/or negative) did the societies of chapter ## economically develop?

The societies of ch 13 postivly effected the econmics of the Byzantine society. One reason was haveing Constantinople as the tradeing hub for the empire. Also the introduction of the theme system opened up new and improved ways to farm. This created a surplus in food so that other people could specialize in metalurgy or other things to do. MAny textiles were manufactured in Constantinople like Silk and the harvesting of jems. Many land and sea routes spread out from here which helped the society. Thi increased trade that was able to sustain the Byzantine empire. MAny banks and businesses made paternerships that created a more stable society.
Posted Monday, 2:58 pm

How did the societies of chapter ## develop and/or transform in the context of this unit?

In the early centuries of the Byzantine Empire, which was established by the emperor Constantine, wealthy cultivators ran large estates and supervised the peasants as a dependent class. The peasants were not slaves in these situations. Rarely did these peasants gain enough money to gain their own independence. This system was replaced by the theme system in the sixth and seventh centuries during the time of Justinian, who also erected the Church of Hagia Sophia and issued the Corpus iuris civilis. The theme system made land available to peasants who performed military service. The imperial government also prevented wealthy landowners from gaining too much power. However, over time, these wealthy landowners established even larger estates, thus transforming the peasants into an even more dependent class.