Samantha Gray, Alyssa Plesser, Clarissa Slagle:

Type your responses below the question. Bold the notecard terms.

How did human/environmental interaction help and/or hurt the societies of chapter ##?

  • The Black Death had hit Europe, Asia, and N. Africa.
  • Many people died and they couldn't see much hope.
  • The plauge not only traveled over land but also traveled throughout the water ways.
  • It led to several rebellions from laborers because they demanded more pay because there was less of them because the others had died.

In what ways did cultural interactions develop in/get introduced to the societies of chapter ##?

The main relgions discussed in this chapter were Christianity and Islam. The Sufis and Christian missionaries went with travelers to set up missions in oder to spread Islam. For example, John of Montecorvino was an italian Fransican who translated the new testament into Turkish and baptized 6,000 people in his journeys. On the muslims behalf, qadis traveled to newly converted lands to give advice and shape the communioties around Islam. one of these qadis was Ibn Battuta who was famous for traveling but also for freeloading of people in the new Islamic lands. in addition, religous people were not only sent to ne lands but , Rabban Sauma, for instance, was a nestorian priest sent to France and Endland to attract support for the invading of Muslim lands. Furthermore, a new philospohy that was presented during this chapter was humanism. In humanism scholars were interested in lituratue, history and moral philosphies. They believed that it was possible to lead moral lives and participate activly in the world. In addition, beacuse of the immense amount of travles new technologies were created such as the amazing ships sailed by Zheng He. His ships were very sturdy with water chambers for food and in case of flooding and sails wich could be turned to use the wind. Also, gunpowder was a new technology that was started with the Mongols which spread to Muslim armies and then to Europe by 1258. Lastly, the arts and architecture of this chapter was a major concept because of the Renaissance. The Renaissance consisted of inovation in art and architecture. Artists studied the human form and represented emotions of their subjects. All of the art was highly skilled and sponsored by wealthy merchents who were pictured in many paintings. Moreover, the architecture was simple and elegant and the dome structures were vary popular. ( by Alyssa Plesser)

Within the context of chapter ##, what changes or developments occurred as related to state-building?

In what ways (positive and/or negative) did the societies of chapter ## economically develop?

The societies of chapter 22 economically developed in ways of creation, expansion, and interaction of economic systems. New to agricultural and pastoral production was the sugarcane. Sugarcane had spread westward by Muslims and was successive with sugarcane cultivation and platations. More food and products were introduced in cross-cultural interactions as well. Those include cotton, rice, and citris fruits. Trade and commerce was an important day to day activity in the Ming Dynasty. Long-distance travel was common throught the dynasty, whether if it was for commercial, political, diplomatic, or missionary purposes. Cultural exchanges were made and the Indian Ocean was introduced to trade. As a result, the city of Melaka became a center of trade and commerce in the eastern Indian Ocean. Merchants filled the city, one was the famous long-distance traveler Marco Polo. Due to the large amounts of travelers, more people were available to facilitate agricultural and technological diffusion. Trade expeditions were designed as well, one of which was Zheng He's expeditions which was to gain control over foreign trade. Christopher Columbus was known to have attempted to make profitable trade across long distances. Many products were traded throughout trade networks. Just as the tributary system was used in China, these networks made it possible for slave trade, which became popular for those who desired gold. Slaves then woked as laborers and enslaved Africans made up the labor system in Portugul. However, because of the Black Death the labor system was effected negatively. A new industry of gunpowder techniques arrived from China and reached the entire Eurasian landmass. A result of gunpowder was primitive cannons and experimentation with rockets. Renaissance art and architecture was part of everyday social life, also.

How did the societies of chapter ## develop and/or transform in the context of this unit?