Group Member Names:Courtney Boyer, Rebekah Schuh, and Leanna Merril

Type your responses below the question. Bold the notecard terms.

How did human/environmental interaction help and/or hurt the societies of chapter ##?

In what ways did cultural interactions develop in/get introduced to the societies of chapter ##?

Cultural interactions in the societies in Chapter 19 started mainly because camel caravans allowed trans-Saharan trade to begin. This provided outside influences on the developing sub-Saharan culture. Bantu migrations largely contributed to the introduction of cultural interactions because they transformed African societies. They introduced agriculture and made the kinship groups and stateless societies able to develop into city-states and then empires. For example, the Mali Empire controlled the trade in western Africa and accumulated wealth from this massive trade. This allowed Mansa Musa to make his pilgrimage to Mecca and interacted with peoples along the way. He took on some of their traditions and left his mark on their societies. In this way religion helped introduce cultural interactions. One such religion was Islam. Muslim maritime traders used the Indian Ocean to travel to the Swahili states on the east African coast. These merchants brought religious and cultural influences to this area. They also brought about a great need for African slaves known as Zanj. The development of griots enhanced productivity in trade which attracted more merchants and more outside influence. Trade and religion were the two main factors that made cultural interactions to develop in Africa.

Within the context of chapter ##, what changes or developments occurred as related to state-building?

In what ways (positive and/or negative) did the societies of chapter ## economically develop?

How did the societies of chapter ## develop and/or transform in the context of this unit?

The social classes of chapter 19 were clearly defined in the African Society and began as family tribes. Males served as the heads of the clan. The groups were organized into Kinship Groups and Age Groupings. Extended families were the clans main foundation. This form of organization was refered to as a Stateless Society. After the Bantu Migrations agriculture and herding spread resulting in accumulated wealth which in turn brought a bigger population. This bigger population brought about the need for a more organized society. Soon, the family clans took over one another and turned into a larger organized structure although some kinship groups remained. When capturing one another, some members of the Swahili coast were sold to Mesopotamia through Trans-Saharan Trade, this trade was result of Mansa Musas trip to Mecca. These slaves were also knon as Zanj. Families were the basis of the social structure, but some clans were stuck together due to war.